Y chromosome

Testing direct paternal line (Y-DNA)

As Y-Chromosome is a sex chromosome, which defines men, only men can be tested, as they inherit their father’s Y-chromosome. It is not recombined when passed from father to son, so it remains almost identical for thousands of years. What changes across generations is a number of short tandem repeats (STR) on certain places of the chromosome, which is delivered also as a result on a certificate of testing. Family Tree DNA has created a free public service YSearch.org so that people who have tested with different companies can compare their results.[1] Testing of Y-DNA resulted in a large phylogenetic Y haplogroup tree, which starts with the so-called “Y-Chromosome Adam,” the most recent patrilineal ancestor of all people living today, who is believed to have lived 60,000 to 90,000 years ago.[2]

One can order testing of 37, 67, 111 markers or the complete Y-chromosome. More markers are tested more accurate predictions can be made. Matches are delivered also for 12 and 25 markers (see table 6)[3]. Matches have got an indication of a genetic distance between you and your match, which is a probability of sharing the most recent common ancestor (MRCA):

  • 0=exact match, MRCA might be 7 generations ago at 37 markers and 5 generations ago at 111 markers
  • 1=one marker difference, MRCA might be 10 generations ago at 37 markers and 7 generations ago at 111 markers
  • 2=two markers difference, MRCA might be 14 generations ago at 37 markers and 9 generations ago at 111 markers.

According to the first scientific results, the most common Y-haplogroups detected in Slovenian populations are: [4]

  • Eastern European haplogroup R1a1a (M198), which occurs with 36.2% frequency, followed by
  • Western European haplogroup R1b (M343) with 20.3%,
  • South-eastern European haplogroup I2a1 (P37.2) including I2a1b (M423) with 12.9%, and
  • Central European haplogroups I1 (M253) with 11.9%, and J2 (M172) with 5.3%.

[1] YSearch http://www.ysearch.org/

[2] International Society of Genetic Genealogy (2017). Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2018, Version: 13.65, Date: 13 March 2018, http://www.isogg.org/tree/ [Date of access: 15 March, 2018].

[3] Family Tree DNA 

[4] Andrej Zupan & Damjan Glavač (2013) Genetic structure of Slovenian populations by polimorfisms Z-Chromosome and mithohondrial DNA. Drevesa 20(2013)1, p. 4-15  http://www.hawlina.com/srd/genetika.pdf